Why are earlier forms of modern languages called high, middle, or low?
Topic: Case study of english language
June 25, 2019 / By Joe Question:
And what trait makes them "high" or "low" instead of middle? I know that old English is called Middle English, I know old Japanese is called Middle Japanese, but in German there is Low German and High German too. What is up with that?
Best Answers: Why are earlier forms of modern languages called high, middle, or low?
Grey | 5 days ago
Old English, Middle English, and Modern English are different from High English and Low English. The first set divides by time period, the second set divides by dialect. In some cases, High and Low are also used to indicate the "sophisticated" vs the "everyday" idioms. Also, important to note, Old English is different from Middle English - very very different. Just compare Beowulf http://www8.georgetown.edu/departments/m... (Old English) to Troilus and Criseyde http://omacl.org/Troilus/troilus1.html (Middle English).
As for Japanese: "Old Japanese" is not the same as "Middle Japanese" - and Middle Japanese is actually a very uncommon term that's used almost exclusively by linguists. In terms of its evolution, Japanese is more generally divided up into Classical Japanese, also known as "bungotai" (文語体) and modern Japanese, also known as "gendaigo" (現代語). Classical Japanese can further theoretically be split into Old Japanese (Nara period), Early Middle Japanese (Heian - Edo), and Late Middle Japanese (Edo - Meiji), but in terms of grammar of the written language, the changes seen in the 800 or so years between Heian and Meiji are actually very few (from Nara to Heian there are a few more pronounced ones). Generally, Early Middle and Late Middle refer more to spoken language which, of course, changed dramatically. These changes were generally not reflected in the written form (which is what we have to study) until the emergence of the Genbun Itchi (言文一致) movement - which sought to use the vernacular as a base for the written language (genbun itchi itself basically means "unified speech and writing") - in the later half of the 19th century.
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Originally Answered: Marin Luther wanted to translate the bible into modern languages so everybody could read it, but the pope said?
That is not exactly true.
The Bible had already been translated into most "modern" languages. Unfortunately almost no one one know how to read and every book had to be copied by hand. The printing press has just been invented.
Take Tyndale for example. Tyndale's translation was so bad that it could lead believers into error. What would you do to save people's souls?
The Catholic Church condemned Tyndale's English translation because Tyndale had mistranslated the texts in order to promote heretical views. Here is an interesting article about the subject: http://www.catholic.com/thisrock/2002/02...
Tyndale was tried on a charge of heresy in 1536, found guilty, condemned to death (heresy was a capital crime), and executed all by the English government, not the Catholic Church.
There were already several well translated English Bibles available for those few who could read English. http://www.geocities.com/.../biblegraham...
Even today, the Catholic Church reviews Bible translations and approves those that are well translated for use by the Catholic faithful.
With love in Christ.
As for German: Low German (Platt Deutsch) is spoken in the low countries--- these lie in the north western region, and extend to the Netherlands. It is a geological and geographical term. High German, or Hoch Deutsch, evolved in the more mountainous areas of Germany that extend up to the Alps. Both dialects are derived from Germanic tribes, but the people who lived in the low-lands (or flat lands) ended up with a different dialect. This speech of these lowlanders evolved into Dutch and English.
As for English, there is Anglo-Saxon, which is an ancient Germanic tribal tongue, followed by the period in which Chaucer wrote: many consider this Olde English. Middle English is considered Shakespeare. Modern English is considered what you would hear on BBC.
Suffice to say that the description of language development depends upon the languages and the changes which evolved over time. There is not a specific period in which Olde English became Middle, or in which Platt Deutsch split with Hoch Deutsch. Languages evolve, usually as a result of interaction with foreign languages caused by war and commerce, or a slow change in vowel sounds that occasionally would happen in the days when there was no centralized "voice" to standardize phonetic speech. In short, different languages are highly influenced by both isolation and interaction.
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English is divided into 3 chronological periods: Old English 450 to 1150, Middle English 1150 to 1500 and Modern English 1500 to the present. "Beowulf" (the original epic poem, I don't know about the movie) is an example of Old English. Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales" is Middle English. As unlikely as it may seem when you try to read him, Shakespeare is the first well-known author to write in Modern English. For more information on the English language timeline see www.angelfire.com/la2/timeline/ -
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It's a way of dividing up a language's timeline into different segments; this helps organize the language into distinct groups, and makes the difference between English from the eleventh century from english now. These timelines should not be taken too literally.
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Originally Answered: What is the differences between modern supermarket and the Middle East bazaar?
A Hypermarket belongs to one company while a bazaar/souq is more comparable with a ordinary market. Many vendors are selling their goods in one special area. Some souqs are located in a building while others are just a bunch of small shops.
Another difference between a Hypermarket and a bazaar is that it's common to bargain at a bazar which you won't do in Hypermarkets.
Originally, souqs/bazaars were important used as trading centers. The earlier souks were meeting places where people gathered to discuss the day's events and happenings over, a cup of sweetened tea or gahwa, and the Arabic coffee.
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