Topic: Research document introduction
April 22, 2019 / By Alfreda Question:
Ok i have a history powerpoint and i need to do it on the Kurdish conflict and well im in a rush and i need a summary of the conflict. I went online but all i see is long things that have to much detail....so i need a summary that will be atleast when read 1 min 30 secs long. Please help the members in my group are stupid like really bad that there excuse for not doing anything is "the google search asked if i meant the TURDS" like come one can u be that stupid? Anyway please anyone help!!!
Tylor | 6 days ago
The history of the Kurdish people stretches from ancient times to the present day. The Kurds are an Iranian-speaking ethnolinguistic group who have historically inhabited the mountainous areas to the south of Caucasus (Zagros and Taurus mountain ranges), a geographical area collectively referred to as Kurdistan. This area covers northern Iraq, western and northwestern Iran, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey. Kurds are also found in southwestern Armenia and an enclave in Azerbaijan (Kalbajar and Lachin, to the west of Nagorno Karabakh). They are also found in northeastern Iran in Khorasan. The Kurds speak in the Kurdish language of the Iranian branch.
With regard to the origin of the Kurds, it was formerly considered sufficient to describe them as the descendants of the Carduchi, who opposed the retreat of the Ten Thousand through the mountains in the 4th century BC. Modern research traces them far beyond the period of the ancient Greeks. However, there is evidence of more ancient settlements in the region of Kurdistan. The earliest known evidence of a unified and distinct culture (and possibly, ethnicity) by people inhabiting the Kurdish mountains dates back to the Halaf culture of 6,000 BC to 5,400 BC. This was followed by the spread of the Ubaidian culture, which was a foreign introduction from Mesopotamia. In 1927, Ephraim Speiser discovered remains of ancient Halaf and Ubaid settlements in Tepe Gewre (Great Mound) 24 km northeast of Mosul. These settlements date back to between the 5th and 2nd millennium B.C., and include 24 levels of civilizations including Halaf and Ubaid. This site includes an acropolis with monumental remains and fine architecture.[
In their own histories, they are proud to mention the Hurrian period in the mid third millennium BC as the earliest well documented period. The 3rd millennium was the time of the Guti and Hattians. The 2nd and 1st millennium BC were the time of the Kassites, Mitanni, Mannai (Mannaeans), Urartu, and Mushku. All of these peoples shared a common identity and spoke one language or closely related languages or dialects. These groups are thought to have been non-Indo-Europeans, apart from the original Mitanni leadership. Kurds consider themselves to be Indo-European as well as descendants of the above groups. According to the Encyclopaedia Kurdistanica, Kurds are the descendants of all those who have historically settled in Kurdistan, not of any one particular group. A people such as the Guti (Kurti), Mede, Mard, Carduchi(Gordyaei), Adiabene, Zila and Khaldi signify not the ancestor of the Kurds but only one ancestor
Ancient OrientThe Hurrian period lasted from possibly as long ago as 4,300 BC, until about 600 BC. The Hurrian language was similar to later Urartean, and perhaps distantly related to the Northeast Caucasian family of languages (or Alarodian), and kin to modern Chechen and Lezgian. The Hurrians spread far and wide, dominating much territory outside their Zagros-Taurus mountain base. Like their Kurdish descendants, they did not expand very far from the mountains. Their intrusions into the neighboring plains of Mesopotamia and the Iranian Plateau were primarily military annexations with little population settlement. The Hurrians (whose name may be seen today in the dialect and district of Hawraman in Kurdistan) were divided into many clans and subgroups, who set up city-states, kingdoms, and empires known today after their respective clan names. The major peoples in the mountain region during this era (some of whom spoke languages known to be unrelated to Hurrian) included the Gutis, Kurti, Khaldi, Mards, Mushku, Manna (Mannaeans), Hatti, Mittanni, Urartu, and the Kassites, to name just a few. Hurrian cultural influence was strong among the inhabitants of Corduene centuries later, to the extent that they worshipped the Hurrian sky God Teshub.
According to the British scholar G. R. Driver, the earliest account of the Kurds comes from a Sumerian cuneiform clay tablet in 3rd millennium BC, on which the name of a land called Karda or Qarda is inscribed. This land south of Lake Van, was inhabited by the people of Su or Subaru who were connected with the Qurtie, a group of mountain dwellers. It is with this name Qurtie that Driver makes his first etymological connection
 Indo-European migration
By about 2,000 BC, the first vanguard of the Indo-European-speaking peoples were trickling into the present-day Kurdish areas in limited numbers and settling there. They formed the aristocracy of the Mittani and Hittite kingdoms, while the common peoples there remained solidly Hurrian and Hattian, respectively. By about 1,000 BC, the trickle had turned into a flood, and Indo-Europeans quickly outnumbered the Hurrians. Medes, Scythians and Sagarthians are the better-known clans of the Indo-European-speaking Aryans who settled in the area. By 1200 BCE, Medes conquered Hurrian cities and by 850 BCE, the old language of the Kurds (probably from a Dene-Caucasian family) had changed to Indo-European.[.By about 600 BC, the Medes had set up an empire that included all of the present-day Kurdish areas and vast territories far beyond.
 Assyrian records
In the earliest recorded history, the mountains overhanging Assyria were held by a people named Gutii, a title which signified "a warrior", and which was rendered in Assyrian by the synonym of Gardu or Kardu, the precise term quoted by Strabo to explain the name of the Cardaces. These Gutii were a tribe of such power as to be placed in the early Cuneiform records on an equality with the other nations of western Asia, including Syrians and Hittites, the Susians, Elamites, and Akkadians of Babylonia; and during the entire period of the Assyrian Empire, the Gutii seem to have preserved a more-or-less independent political position.
The first records of the name Kurd appeared in Assyrian documents around 1000 BCE. Assyrians called the people living in Mt. Azu or Hizan (near Lake Van) by the name Kurti or Kurkhi. The country of the Kurkhi included regions of Mount Judi and districts that were later called by the names Sophene, Anzanene and Gordyene. The Kurkhi fought numerous battles with Tiglath-Pileser I who eventually defeated them and burnt down 25 of their towns,
Median Empire, ca. 600 BCAfter the fall of Nineveh, the Gutii coalesced with the Medes and, along with all the nations inhabiting the high plateaus of Asia Minor, Armenia and Persia, became gradually Aryanised, owing to the immigration of tribes in overwhelming numbers who, from whatever quarter they may have sprung, belonged certainly to the Aryan family. Herodotus () had recalled a Mede tribe to be called "Magoi", better known as "Magis", a tribe known to have included many priests, who served both Medes and Persians. By the time of the Median empire (est. 612 BC), Zoroastrianism is known to have been well established in both Pars region (later capital of Persia) as well as in the Western regions
Achaemenid, Greek, and Parthian periods
The Gutii or Kurdu were reduced to subjection by Cyrus before he descended upon Babylon, and, having furnished a contingent of fighting men to his successors, were mentioned under the names of "Saspirians" and "Alarodians" in the muster roll of the army of Xerxes preserved by Herodotus.
Governor of Gordyene (Gutium) was a Median general named Gobryas who had worked for the ally of the Medes Nebuchadrezzar earlier in his career. He was later appointed as governor of Babylonia by Cyrus. Darius I sought to limit the growing Median influence at the emperial court. Medes resented his policy and revolted under the leadership of nobles of the old Median line such as Smerdis
Although the Carduchi were subjugated by Cyrus, but they frequently rebelled against the Achaemenids and by the end of the 5th century BCE, during the reign of Artaxerxes II, they were no longer under Persian control. According to Xenophon, Carduchis even defeated a large Persian army sent against them and at times concluded treaties with Persian satraps.[
In 401 BCE, the 10,000 Greek mercenaries of Cyrus the Younger fought their way across the Carduchi's territory.The Greeks chose the path in Carduchi's territory, partly because Carduchis were known to be the enemy of the Persians and were accustomed to defend themselves against the huge armies of the Persians. Carduchis seem to have inhabited the mountanis of Niphates, not far from the source of Tigris
According to Xenophon, Carduchis were very warlike, living in the mountains and did not obey the Persian king. On one occasion, a royal Persian army of 120,000 men penetrated into Carduchi country and not one of them returned. The Greeks were later forced to fight their way through the Carduchi territory for seven days. Despite this, it has been argued that Carduchian mountains in effect presented a refuge to the Greeks, who were trying to escape the attacks of the Persian armies, since the Persian cavalry could not act freely in the range of Carduchian mountains.
In later times they passed successively under the sway of the Macedonians, the Parthians, and Sassanids. They were befriended by the Arsacid monarchs. Gotarzes, whose name may perhaps be translated chief of the Gutii, is traditionally believed to be the founder of the Gurans, the principal tribe of southern Kurdistan. His name and titles are preserved in a Greek inscription at Behistun near Kermanshah. (For a map of the region during the Parthian era see.
Kurds in the Seleucid period
During the Seleucid/Macedonian period, at least one major episode of resettlement of Kurds into western and southwestern Anatolia can be historically evidenced. The episode unfold sometime before 181 BC when a large number of Cardaces are brought to settle in the strategic region of Lycia as
The Kurdish are unfortunately stuck geographically, in between intolerant societies. They need borders to defend, & protect themselves. They don't have these. Because of this, the cycle of violence has gone on for decades. Hope this helps.