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Topic: **Law passing homework****Question:**
The term “designer baby” was coined to describe reproductive technologies whereby prospective parents purchase sperm and eggs from donors chosen on the basis of their mental and physical traits to produce an embryo with a certain set of desired traits, usually those related to physical and mental fitness and beauty. It also refers to emerging technologies whereby parents can manipulate the characteristics inherited by their own embryos such that the resulting infant carries the “best” genes of both parents. What sets the “designer baby” movement apart from standard pre- implantation genetic testing is that the focus is not so much on ensuring that some known disorder (e.g. cystic fibrosis) isn’t passed along, but that traits such as intelligence or athletic ability are deliberately chosen.
Are the parents who purchase a donor- produced baby guaranteed the desired outcome? Why or why not? Address at least three genetic and three environmental factors that might produce a baby with characteristics other than what the parents “ordered.”

June 24, 2019 / By Ally

The outcome would not be guaranteed because the purpose of sexual reproduction is to enable the diversification of a species. Even two individuals with the same genetic makeup (ex. twins) will not be exactly the same and there is no true way to predict how genes will interact in their pairs and with other genes in the code. Here are some factors in terms of genetics: (1) the law of independant assortment-you never know which of the parent's traits will be matched (2) codominance/incomplete dominance- genes are not just a one or the other outcome event, even the same set of genes can have many different appearances (3) crossing-over- even in a set pair of genes, when a zygote is formed, bits of the chromosomes themselves can be switched allowing for greater diversity in the genetics of the offspring As for the environment- (1) there are genes that are activated by factors such as temperature, etc (a common one is the himalayan trait in animals) (2) of course the common outside factors such as drinking, smoking, etc on a child (3) the surroundings of the biological mother during pregnancy can also trigger aspects such as asthma and other medical issues that would affect the outcome of the child.

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S is solid and s is spotted, so the cross is Ss x Ss, there are two possible gametes S and s from each parent so possible outcomes are SS Ss sS ss, the genotype ratio is 1:2:1 and the phenotype ratio is 3:1 solid to spotted. a. Probability of solid fur is 3/4 and spotted fur is 1/4. In a litter of six puppies, 1 outcome is that the first four born have solid fur and the last two spotted fur and so this probability would be 3/4 x 3/4 x3/4 x 3/4x 1/4 x1/4. But this is not the only possible way in which the six puppies could have been born with these fur types. You could count all the possible ways in which you could arrange six puppies and then multiply the probability above, by that number of combinations to get the answer, but it could take a long time. Alternatively use the binomial expansion which is much quicker. There are different ways of writing it, with different letters, but here is my version. n is the total number of events, here 6 as we have six puppies. m is the number of time one outcome happens, lets call this solid, so m = 4. Finally n-m is the number of time the other outcome occurs, here spotted so n-m = 2. p is the probability of solid = 0.75 and q is the probability of spotted = 0.25. Now we can use the binomial expansion to calculate the probability of 4 solid and 2 spotted, taking into account all the possible ways of doing it n! p^m q^n-m/m! (n-m)! n! = 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 and m! = 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 (n-m)! = 2 x 1. If you do n!/m!(n-m)! you end up with 6 x 5/2 x 1 after cancelling which is 30/2 = 15. This is the number of combinations of 4 and 2. Now your results are 15 p^m q^n-m which is 15 x (3/4)^4 x (1/4)^2. You can do the calculation. b. The first one needs the binomial expansion, do in the same way, the second litter has only one outcome so the probability is just 3/4 x 3/4 x 3/4 x3/4 x 3/4 or (3/4)^5

a. 81/4096 b. the individual probability is 81/1024 for the first and 243/1024 for the second together it is apron .0187711716 i used a punnett square to find the individual probability for each pup then multiplied them together

Since the father is Type AB, he has alleles A and B. Since mother is Type O, he has alleles O and O. Children: Type AB This child is adopted because there is no O from the mother at all. Type A Type B Type O This child is from an earlier marriage because there is an O from Mom and and O from Dad (who isn't the current father).

Father :: AB X OO :: Mother All their biological children have to be EITHER AO or BO. An O allele from the mother must be present, and an A or a B from the father too. That leaves the other two... Any children of the mother has to have the O allele, so the child from an earlier marriage is O (and his father, the mother's previous husband, had to be OO too). That leaves out the child with AB, that CAN NOT be this mother's son, so is the adopted one.

you do not say if this is intercourse-appropriate, so we''ll anticipate this is easy Mendelian genetics, then it may be D for dominant, greater digits. And d for the classic # of digits. Dad could desire to be Dd or DD. mom is dd. babies could desire to be Dd : dd, 2/4 greater, 2/4 primary, for the 1st circulate. babies could be all Dd, 4/4 greater for the 2d circulate. however the daughter is primary, dd. So, Dad is Dd. So this is the 1st one, Dd:Dd, the place there's a 50/50 probability.

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