Would you explain evolution to me?
Topic: Basic steps in writing a paragraph
July 17, 2019 / By Calla Question:
Right. Survival of the fittest: an organism reproduces and the offspring that have an advantage, even a little one, survive; those that are even a little disadvantaged have a higher chances of dying without producing young, thus leaving successively better adapted organisms after each generation.
What I want to know, firstly, is how do your genes, or whatever, "know" in what direction to evolve in? Apparently humans evolved into standing creatures after successive generations of wading, the non-wading getting killed off. How do you genes "store" that "information"? "Oh, we need to wade. Lets adjust the eggs to produce creatures that wade more." How?
The second is how did organism evolve from asexually reproducing creatures to sexually reproducing creatures? That is, I can see how you can have an ear-like appendage, that works some other way, that eventually becomes an ear. But you can't exactly (don't recall the scientific word, but) split in half, to make more of yourself, and then suddenly need help to do it. You can't exactly be unable to reproduce for a generation.
Best Answers: Would you explain evolution to me?
Alysa | 5 days ago
>"What I want to know, firstly, is how do your genes, or whatever, "know" in what direction to evolve in? "
Read your first paragraph again. (It is well written.) There is no need for you or your genes to "know" anything. In any population there is variation between traits. Those with the best traits, make the most babies. That's it. So over time the genes in the population just *find what works best*. Period. They don't "know." Mutations just throw out experiments, and the act of survival chooses the best ones.
Your second question about sexual reproduction requires a longer answer.
Keep in mind that sexual reproduction does NOT require two separate sexes.
Example 1: Most flowering plants reproduce sexually, but do not have separate "male plants" and "female plants" ... all plants have *both* types of sex organs.
Example 2: There are many examples in the animal kingdom of similarly 'hermaphrodite' species ... clownfish (remember Finding Nemo) and other kinds of fish like hamlets and wrasses, banana slugs and other gastropods like some kinds of land snails and slugs, earthworms, and many other animal species.
Example 3: Slime molds are able to reproduce both asexually and sexually, but don't have separate male and female gametes (sperm and egg cells) at all. Many other species of plants and fungi also have these undifferentiated gametes (called 'spores').
So your question is actually four questions ... four different developments in the history of living things:
1. the development of sexual reproduction to begin with (cells from two different individuals combining to form a new individual),
2. the development of separate male and female gametes (sperm or pollen vs. egg cells or ova);
3. The development of separate male and female *organs* (one for distributing large numbers of male gametes vs. one for receiving male gametes and allowing fertilization);
4. The specialization of *individuals* within the species, that have only one type of organ vs. the other.
Here's a *rough* outline:
First came the separation of the diploid state (where all chromosomes are paired) and a haploid state (where the chromosome pairs are separated, so each cell has half the full number of chromosomes). For example, slime mold amoebas are normally diploid, but can form small haploid cells ... called spores ... that can travel and combine with other spores to produce new diploid individuals (fertilization). That's basic sexual reproduction.
The next step is in the slow specialization of two kinds of haploid cells. Some get smaller and are specialized for mass-production, and for lightness (so they can be carried farther by air or water) ... while others get larger as they contain all the nutrients needed to start a new individual after fertilization. The smaller cells we call "male gametes" (sperm or pollen), and the larger ones we call "female gametes" (egg cells or ova).
The next step are organs that specialize in either mass-producing and distributing male gametes, or specialize in producing female gametes and providing an environment for growth after fertilization (e.g eggs in the case of animals or seeds in the case of plants).
And finally comes the specialization of individuals to have only one kind of sexual organ or the other, rather than all individuals having both (the way most flowering plants are). Male and female organs will continue to get more and more differentiated from each other, but will always work together. That's because those individuals of any generation that do *not* work well with the sexual organs of the opposite sex, don't reproduce, and therefore those genes don't last long. But other than that ... any slight alteration in the sex organs of either sex that makes it a little better at doing what it does best (e.g. the way that placental mammals slowly kept the egg internally for longer and longer until the egg is never laid outside the body, but becomes a placenta ... and the young "hatch" directly from the mother).
Again, that is a *ROUGH* outline of about 3 billion years of evolution.
For more information, google "evolution of sex" ... and you will find *MANY* more detailed explanations.
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Originally Answered: If evolution is false then how do you explain this?
Ev is false - more serious issues - part of my research: Many'll do anything 2 keep God out of the equation. The crux of the problem is many (having limited knowledge) try 2 know what God did by imposing human limitations 4 understanding things 2 God's power/abilities (crux ur problem). Only 1 God can occupy infinity & that God is the God of Israel so theres no other gods. Its only fully provable b/c Jesus is the true Son of God. Huge holes in Ev also call in2 ? the BB/abiogenesis (laws of probability says there'd hv 2 b a 95-99% failure rate 4 most changes = no Ev). Evidence 4 God/Jesus/Bible:
Just b/c many scientific finds r true it doesnt mean "all" their claims r true (many dont take time & energy 2 carefully think thru things b4 coming out 4 or against it). Many dont take in2 account all it takes 2 create a universe/life (they tend 2 focus on things "seeming" 2 support what they want 2 &/or u 2 believe).
In science we established laws of physics. We can't see laws of physics. Rather, we see the results/interpret/apply them in accordance with whats observed 2 b true by experiments/calculations. Same is true 4 God. Just b/c we can't see God doesn't mean He doesnt exist.
Theres real evidence 4 some micro-adaptation & 4 some appearance of macro-Ev but most is inconclusive @ best, pure conjecture @ worst. Finding the beginning/reason 4 it all is unattainable by scientific method alone (a billions of yrs old cold case). We didnt see it take place.
Things in Creation show an Intelligent Being was involved or the universe/we wouldnt b here (ignoring how it came 2 b). 4 instance:
1. We hv 2 lungs/2 kidneys - each has a near perfect mirror-image companion organ. It cant b explained away. Making a mirror-image organ takes full reverse engineering/knowledge/understanding of its companion's functions & purpose or it cant b created (2 witnesses in nature).
2. Our bodies r highly symmetrical from 1 side 2 the other. Its impossible unless 1 has an outside overview position allowing full knowledge of the entire organism (i.e. feather color patterns).
3. We hv 2 arms/2 legs. Each is perfectly designed/precisely engineered 2 work with its mirror-image companion. An outside position is required 2 fully comprehend the purpose/functions of the organism, 2 create it 2 such perfection.
4. The "being" of a cell is confined 2 within the cell membrane & cant know much beyond itself. A cell is magnitudes more intelligent than all humanity & has amazing powers 2 know all of an organism's functions/purpose or it isnt the "brain" behind Creation 4 many millions of incredibly diverse species. If Ev had a chance of being the source of Creation only 2 or 3 "kinds" of basic bodies with some related species would exist (would take billions of trillions of yrs longer than the universe has existed 2 hv the slightest chance of producing many millions of incredibly diverse species).
5. Many cells of an organism never contact others much beyond its tiny cell. Cells/organisms r just copies of their parents doing about the same things as all ancestors. U wont find a bird who builds a better nest than their parents & their chicks build even a better nest. U wont find a bear improving living conditions passed on 2 his young. Either a cell has 2 lives - 1 copying its parents & 1 secret life working on improvements or some1 of higher intelligence than all mankind created it all.
6. Others point 2 DNA (RNA in the 1rst organisms). But a cell needs DNA 2 function & DNA cant function without a cell. So, we hv a which came 1rst a cell or DNA problem. W/o 1rst having great intelligence/full knowledge/understanding of how an organism is constructed it cant b created. If an ape finds a combination lock he wouldnt know what it was. Even if he turns the dial over & over again he wouldnt know what he was doing & the chances against getting it right is astronomical - especially if it had 150 or more no. 2 find in the right order & even if he got that far he still wouldnt know what a lock is 4.
A cell has little "intelligence" & DNA is way more complex than a combination lock (especially in higher life forms) so the odds against figuring out & using DNA (in the correct sequence) is many magnitudes higher than 4 a lock). RNA/DNA r building blocks common 2 all life - having 98% of other species' DNA doesnt prove Ev. DNA like a computer code (but way more complex) requires great intelligence 2 identify & assign its proper order - its useless unless u understand it. Give a book 2 an ape. Its useless 2 him as he cant learn from whats written - intelligence is required.
7. In the fossil record we dont find millions of trial & error organisms that should exist if natural selection or fittest survivor is the source of Creation (no organisms existed b4). The odds r so great against near perfection happening 4 many millions of greatly diverse species, it couldnt take place unless 1 had full knowledge/understanding of what theyre doing B4 millions of organisms could b created 2 such precision. If not true millions of misfit organisms with mistakes, having only 1 or 3 eyes in odd places, 1 leg growing out of a head or where an arm should b or a fin where a leg should b should exist. Millions more misfit fossils should exist than of the perfection found in nature.
8. U won't find species like a horse mating a goat, a frog mating fish, a rabbit mating a dog, a lizard mating a bird, a cow mating a hog, etc. Species with similar genes/characteristics rarely mate in the wild. Only a few succeed @ bearing young. Its very rare that a wild crossbreed/hybrid reaches maturity or can bear over 1 litter (usually that litter cant produce or has complications that kills off the crossbreed). Only human intervention brings more success but even that has lead 2 some bad results.
9. Ev processes being "the" source of Creation is like having a blind man build a car he's never heard of, seen, touched, heard or rode in. It cant b done without 1rst teaching him about the functions/necessary parts & how 2 put it 2gether 4 the car 2 function.
10. Look @ the huge amount of intelligence/knowledge/understanding/tim... & energy used 2 create & improve an airplane's capabilities (& many mistakes). If ppl didnt fully learn what 2 do we'd still b earthbound.
11. Creation is astronomically more complex than an airplane. The more complex an organism, the greater the amount of intelligence/knowledge/understanding needed 2 create it. It can only b done by an Intelligent Designer who already fully understands what He's doing - the sheer complexity of man is evidence of God (airplanes show we're created in God's image - God had 2 b the source of all Creation or it couldnt exist let alone evolve).
12. An incredibly Intelligent Being, capable of building a universe, knows the environment His earthly organisms r 2 occupy. So, He built in adaptability so His organisms could survive various environments.
13. Earth happens 2 b in the best possible orbit 2 support life. It has the right amount of gravity, the right axis & rotation speed, the right atmosphere (& ozone layer/Van Allen belt/magnetic field) & needed amount of water. The moon's the right size & in the right orbit 2 provide tidal cycles needed by organisms. Just 1 or 2 relatively small variants in our orbit/environment & most likely life would b very different & higher forms of life wouldve died off in a relatively short time, if they couldve survived.
Problem is theres many religions, built on what man wants God 2 b like. I realized they cant all b right (Theres 1 Bible - why so many interpretations? II Pet 1:**19-21). Religion wont teach u much about God (they cant teach what they don't know) but God knows what He's doing. Who knows more about a house, the Builder or those moving in later?
Many miss this: Jesus is the only 1 in history who stated He's "the" way, "the" truth & "the" life & no 1 gets 2 God w/o Him (Jn 14:6; 5:39; 10:1,7; Acts 4:12) & is the only 1 who came from God. Its fully true or theres no truth & cant b any God (He knows what He's doing or He's not God). Either Jesus told the whole truth or He's a false prophet, among many, who should b disregarded.
Since Jesus is the only way 2 know God, "the" whole truth was complete & finished thru Jesus. So any claimed new or other religious beliefs or from self-proclaimed prophets/ teachers r invalid & wont lead u 2 God. God always knew all Jesus was 2 do.
Jesus couldnt hv done nor said whats written in the NT unless He fully knew the entire OT (NT didnt exist while Jesus was on earth). Jesus couldnt hv known the entire OT unless God was with Him. The Apostles couldnt write the NT unless Jesus allowed them 2 remember & know why He was here (Lk 24:25-27,45) - Only God could cause it.
Whoever seeks Jesus Christ with all his heart & soul will find God & His Kingdom (u shall know the truth & it'll set u free). U can lead a horse 2 water but u cant make it drink. Why should God want u 2 live with Him 4ever if u dont want 2 know Him His way (reason 4 free will - Jn 1:12-13)? The truth of God remains 4ever unchanged while things of a man dies with him, including his religions/gods made in his image.
God hates us b/c of our sins - neither being a good person as judged by men or religion can save u. But God also loves us dearly enough 2 send His Son 2 die for our sins - so that thru Jesus our sins could b 4given if we sincerely turn 2 Him - Theres eternal hope only in Jesus & His Bible.
It doesn't "know" where to evolve. It's much more random than that. Evolution occurs through what's called "mutations." Mutations are any random change in DNA that could be caused by a number of also random factors. So you may ask, "Wow, that sure is convenient that the mutation would randomly cause us to walk!" Well, no, not always. Why do you think so many species are extinct? Some mutations actually inhibit an individual to where, even if they are able to reproduce, their offspring may not survive. On the other hand, mutations that cause an advantage would cause the "lesser" organisms to die out from being outcompeted. Furthermore, evolution isn't just one single occurance. It takes place over thousands, sometimes MILLIONS of years, across multiple generations.
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What do you want explained? Sort of a vague question I must say. If you want evolution explained, there are many references in your local library and even on the internet. Wikipedia has some good articles about evolution. I would assume you would already know about evolution if you went to school.
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Your question is a bit like asking:
"If you take a stack of couple of sieves of various grid sizes, and pour a composite of large, medium, and fine grain gravel through it. With enough pours eventually all that ends up on the bottom is the fine gravel. How did the sieve know to let the fine gravel through?"
You can't, retrospectively, look at a process and its result and conclude that the process "knew" how to achieve the result.
The result is garaunteed by the nature of the process
How replace the sieve with selective pressures from the environment, the varied gravel with varied members of a species, and the size of the holes in the grid with how well a mutation fits in the environment (big=poorly, small=well)...
The individuals that are well suited (small grain) eventually are the only ones left, through no action of their own, other than being born the way they were...
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Originally Answered: Given the law of entropy, how do we explain evolution?
Becauase evolution is not a process of increasing complexity. It is adaption to fit an environment. It really does not have an end goal and is brought about by environmental pressures. Some cases the species become simpler and loses functions or even organs.
Studies of entropy are applied mainly in closed systems, and even then on a molecular level. Not really applicable.
You should study a bit more on both. Here's a good start.